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The Myhic Fire

Association

MICW

MUSIC IN CATHOLIC WORSHIP

Bishops' Committee on the Liturgy

United States Catholic Conference

1972

I. THE THEOLOGY OF CELEBRATION

 

1. People are Christians because through the Christian community they have met Jesus Christ,

heard his word in invitation, and responded to him in faith. Christians gather at Mass that they may

hear and express their faith again in this assembly, and, by expressing it, renew and deepen it.

 

 2. We do not come to meet Christ as if he were absent from the rest of our lives. We come

together to deepen our awareness of, and commitment to the action of his Spirit in the whole of

our lives at every moment. We come together to acknowledge the love of God poured out among

us in the work of the Spirit, to stand in awe and praise.

 

 3. We are celebrating when we involve ourselves meaningfully in the thoughts, words, songs and

gestures of the worshipping community - when everything we do is wholehearted and authentic for

us - when we mean the words and want to do what is done.

 

 4. People in love make signs of love, not only to express their love but also to deepen it. Love

never expressed dies. Christians' faith in Christ and in each other, must be expressed in the signs

and symbols of celebration, or it will die.

 

 5. Celebrations need not fail, even on a particular Sunday when our feelings do not match the

invitation of Christ and his Church to worship. Faith dose not always premeate our feelings. But

the signs and symbols of worship can give bodily expression to faith as we celebrate. Our own

faith is stimulated. We become one with others whose faith is similarly expressed. We rise above

our own feelings to respond to God in prayer.

 

 6. Faith grows when it is well expressed in celebration. Good celebrations foster and nourish

faith. Poor celebrations weaken and destroy faith.

 

7. To celebrate the liturgy means to do the action or perform the sign in such a way that the full

meaning and impact shine in clear and compelling fashion. Since these signs are vehicles of

communication and instruments of faith, they must be simple and comprehensible. Since they are

directed to fellow human beings, they must be humanly attractive. They must be meaningful and

appealing to the body of worshippers, or they will fail to stir up faith and people will fail to worship

the Father.

 

8. The signs of celebration should be short, clear, unencumbered by useless repetition; they should

be within the people's power of comprehension and normally should not require much explanation.

 

 If the signs need explanation to communicate faith, they will often be watched instead of

celebrated.

 

 9. In true celebration each sign or sacramental action will be invested with the personal and

prayerful faith, care, attention and enthusiasm of those who carry it out.

 

  

 

 

II. PASTORAL PLANNING

FOR CELEBRATION

 

10. The responsibility for effective pastoral celebration in a parish community falls upon all those

who exercise major roles in the liturgy. "The particular preparation for each liturgical celebration

should be done in a spirit of cooperation by all parties concerned, under the guidance of the rector

of the church, whether it be ritual, pastoral or musical matters." (General Instruction on the Missal,

73) In practice, this ordinarily means an organized "planning team" or committee which meets

regularly to achieve creative and coordinated worship and a good use of the liturgical and musical

options of a flexible liturgy.

 

 11. The power of a liturgical celebration to share faith will frequently depend upon its unity - a

unity drawn from the liturgical feast or season or from the readings appointed in the lectionary and

artistic unity flowing from the skillful and sensitive selection of options, music and related arts. The

sacred scriptures ought to be the source and inspiration of sound planning, for it is the very nature

of celebration that the gathered assembly hear the saving words and works of the Lord and then

respond in meaningful signs and symbols. Where the readings of the lectionary possess a thematic

unity, the other elements ought to be so arranged as to form a setting for and response to the

message of the Word.

 

 12. The planning team or committee is headed by the priest (celebrant and homilist), for no

community can experience the security of a unified celebration if that unity is not grasped by the

one who presides, as well as by those who have special roles.

 

 The planning team should include those with the knowledge and artistic skills needed in

celebration - men and women trained in music, poetry, and art, and knowledge in current

resources in these areas - men and women sensitive to the present day thirst of so many people

for the riches of scripture, theology and prayer. It is always good to include some general

members of the community who have not taken special roles in the celebrations, so that honest

evaluations can be made.

 

 13. The planning should go beyond the choosing of options, songs, and ministers to the

composition of such texts as the brief introduction, general intercessions, and other appropriate

comments as provided in the General Instruction on the Roman Missal. The manner of inviting the

people to join in a particular song may be as important as the choice of the song itself.

 

 14. In planning pastoral celebrations, the people, the occasion and the celebrant must be taken

into consideration.

 

 THE PEOPLE

 

 15. "The pastoral effectiveness of a celebation depends in great measure on choosing readings,

prayers, and songs which correspond to the needs, spiritual preparation and attitudes of the

participants." (General Instruction, 313) A type of celebration suitable for a youth group may not

fit in a retirement home; a more formal style effective in a parish church may be inappropriate in a

home liturgy. The music used should be within the competence of most of the worshippers. It

should suit their age level, cultural background and level of faith.

 

 16. Variation in faith level raises special problems. Liturgical celebration presupposes a minimum

of bibical knowledge and a deep commitment of living faith. Lacking these conditions, the liturgy

may be forced to become a tool of evangelization. Greater liberty in the choice of music and style

of celebration may be required as the participants are led toward that day when they can share a

growing faith in the whole community. Songs such as the psalms may create problems where faith

is weak. Music, chosen with care, can serve as a bridge to faith as well as an expression of it.

 

 17. The diversity of people present at a parish liturgy gives rise to a further problem. Can the

same parish liturgy be an authentic expression for a grade school girl, her college-age brother,

their married sister with her young family, their parents, their grandparents? Can it satisfy the

theologically and musically educated along with those lacking in training? Can it please those who

seek a more informal style of celebration? The planning team must consider the general makeup of

the total community. Each Christian must keep in mind that to live and worship in community often

demands a personal sacrifice. Everyone must be willing to share likes and dislikes with those

whose ideas and experience may be quite different.

 

 18. Often the problem of diversity can be mitigated by supplementing the parish Sunday

celebration with special celebrations for smaller homogeneous groups. "The need of the faithful of

a particular age level may often be met by a music that can serve as a congenial,

liturgically-oriented expression of prayer." (BCL, April 1966) the music and other options may

then be more easily suited to the particular group celebrating. Nevertheless, it would be out of

harmony with the Lord's wish for unity in his Church if believers were to worship only in such

homogeneous groupings. Celebration in such groups, in which the genuine sense of community is

more readily experienced, can contribute significantly to growth in awareness of the parish as

community, especially when all the faithful participate in the parish Mass on the Lord's day.

 

 THE OCCASION

 

 19. The same community will want to celebrate in a variety of ways. During the course of the year

the different mysteries of redemption are celebrated at Mass so that in some way they are made

present. Each feast and season has its own spirit and its own music. The penitential occasions

demand more restraint. The great feasts demand more solemnity. Solemnity, however, depends

less on the ornateness of song and magnificence of ceremony than on worthy and religious

celebration.

 

 20. Generally an assembly or choir will want to sing more on the great feasts like Christmas and

Easter and less in the season through the year. Important events in family and parish life will

suggest fuller programs of song. Sundays will be celebated with variety but always as befits the

day of the Lord. All liturgies, from the very simple to the most ornate, must be truly pastoral and

prayerful.

 

 THE CELEBRANT

 

 21. No other single factor affects the liturgy as much as the attitude, style, and bearing of the

celebrant: his sincere faith and warmth as he welcomes the worshipping community; his human

naturalness combined with dignity and seriousness as he breaks the Bread of Word and Eucharist.

 

 22.The style and pattern of song ought to facilitate the effectiveness of a good celebrant. His role

is enhanced when he is capable of rendering some of his parts in song and he should be

encouraged to do so. What he cannot sing well and effectively he ought to recite. If capable, he

ought, for the sake of the people, to rehearse carefully the sung parts that would contribute to their

celebration.

 

  

 

 

III. THE PLACE OF MUSIC IN THE CELEBRATION

 

Music Serves the Expression of Faith

 

 23. Among the many signs and symbols used by the Church to celebrate its faith, music is of

preeminent importance. As sacred song united to the words it forms an integral part of solemn

liturgy. Yet the function of music is ministerial; it must serve and never dominate. Music should

assist the assembled believers to express and share the gift of faith that is within them and to

nourish and strengthen their interior commitment of faith. It should heighten the texts so that they

speak more fully and more effectively. The quality of joy and enthusiasm which music adds to

community worship cannot be gained in any other way. It imparts a sense of unity to the gathered

assebly and sets the appropriate tone for a particular celebration.

 

 24. Music, in addition to expressing texts, can also unveil a dimension of meaning and feeling, a

communication of ideas and intuitions which words alone cannot yield. This dimension is integral to

the human personality and to our growth in faith. It cannot be ignored if the signs of worship are to

speak to the whole person. Ideally every communal celebration of faith, including funerals and the

sacraments of baptism, confirmation, penance, anointing and matrimony, should include music and

singing. Where the Liturgy of the Hours is able to be celebrated in a community, it too should

include music.

 

 25. To determine the value of a given musical element in a liturgical celebration a threefold

judgement must be made: musical, liturgical and pastoral.

 

 THE MUSICAL JUDGEMENT

 

 26. Is the music technically, aesthetically, and expressively good? This judgement is basic and

primary and should be made by competent musicians. Only artistically sound music will be

effective in the long run. To admit the cheap, the trite, the musical cliche often found in popular

songs on the grounds of instant liturgy is to cheapen the liturgy, to expose it to ridicule, and to

invite failure.

 

 27. Musicians must search for and create music of quality for worship, especially the new musical

settings for the new liturgical texts. They must also do the research needed to find new uses for the

best of the old music. They must explore the repertory of good music used in other communions.

They must find practical means of preserving and using our rich heritage of Latin chants and

motets.

 

 In the meantime, however, the words of St. Augustine should not be forgotten: "Do not allow

yourselves to be offended by the imperfect while you strive for the perfect."

 

 28. We do a disservice to musical values, however, when we confuse the judgement of music

with the judgement of musical style. Style and value are two distinct judgements. Good music of

new styles is finding a happy home in the celebrations of today. To chant and polyphony we have

effectively added the chorale hymn, restored responsorial singing to a great extent, and employed

many styles of contemporary composition. Music in the folk idiom is finding acceptance in

eucharistic celebrations. We must judge value within each style.

 

 In modern times the Church has consistently and freely admitted the use of various styles of music

as an aid to liturgical worship. Since the promulgation of the Constitution on the Liturgy and more

especially since the introduction of vernacular languages into the liturgy, there has arisen a more

pressing need for musical compositions in idioms that can be sung by the whole community and

thus further communal participation.

 

29. The musician has every right to insist that the music be good. But although all liturgical music

should be good music, not all good music is suitable to the liturgy. The musical judgement is basic

but not final. There remain the liturgical and pastoral judgements.

 

 THE LITURGICAL JUDGMENT

 

 30. The nature of the liturgy itself will help to determine what kind of music is called for, what

parts are to be preferred for singing and who is to sing them.

 

Structural Requirements

 

 31. The choice of sung parts, the balance between them and the style of musical setting should

reflect the relative importance of the parts of the Mass (or other service) and the nature of each

part. Thus elaborate settings of the entrance song, or Lord Have Mercy or Glory to God may

make the proclamation of the word seem unimportant; and an overly elaborate song during the

preparation of the gifts with a spoken Holy Holy Holy may make the eucharistic prayer seem less

important.

 

 Textual Requirements

 

 32. Dose the music express and interpret the text correctly and make it more meaningful? Is the

form of the text respected? In making these judgements the principal classes of texts must be kept

in mind: proclamations, acclamations, psalms and hymns, and prayers. Each has a specific function

which must be served by the music chosen for the text.

 

 In most instances there is an official liturgical text approved by the episcopal conference.

"Vernacular text set to music composed in earlier periods may be used in liturgical texts."(sic,

NCCB, November 1967) As noted elsewhere, criteria have been provided for the texts which

may replace the processional chants of the Mass. In these cases and in the choice of all

supplementary music, the text must always be in conformity with Catholic doctrine; indeed they

should be drawn chiefly from holy scripture and from liturgical sources.

 

 Role Differentiation

 

 33. In liturgical celebretions each person who has an office to perform should do all of, but only,

those parts which pertain to that office by the nature of the rite and the principles of liturgy. Special

musical concern must be given to the role of the whole assembly, the cantor, the choir, and the

instrumentalists.

 

 The Assembly

 

 34. Music for everyone must be within the performance ability of those who gather. The whole

assembly must be comfortable and secure with what is to be done in order to celebrate well.

 

 The Cantor

 

 35. While there is no place in the liturgy for virtuosity for its own sake, artistry is valued, and an

individual singer can effectively lead the assembly, attractively proclaim the Word of God in the

psalm sung between the readings, and take his or her part in other responsorial singing. Especially

when there is no possibility of setting up even a small choir, provision should be made for one or

two trained singers. "The singer will present some simpler musical setting, with the people taking

part, and can lead and support the faithful as far as is needed. The presence of such a singer is

desirable even in churches which have a choir for those celebrations in which the choir cannot take

part, but which may fittingly be performed with some solemnity and therefore with singing." (1967,

Instruction on Music In the Liturgy). Although a cantor cannot enhance the service of worship in

the same way as a choir, a trained and competent cantor can perform an important ministry by

leading the assembly in common sacred song and responsorial singing.

 

The Choir

 

 36. A well-trained choir adds beauty and solemnity to the liturgy and also assists and encourages

the singing of the whole assembly. The Second Vatical Council, in speaking of the choir, stated

emphatically: "Choirs must be diligently promoted (so that) the whole body of the faithful may be

able to contribute that active participation that is rightly theirs." (Constitution on the Liturgy, 114).

 

 At times the choir, within the assembly of the faithful and as part of it, will assume the role of

leadership, while at other times it will retain its own distinctive ministry. This means that the choir

will lead the people in sung prayer, by alternating or reinforcing the sacred song of the assembly or

by enhancing it with the addition of musical elaboration. At other times in the course of liturgical

celebration, the choir alone will sing works whose musical demands enlist and challenge its

competence.

 

 The Organist and Other Instrumentalists

 

 37. Singing is not the only kind of music suitable for liturgical celebration. Music performed on the

organ and other instruments can stimulate feelings of joy and contemplation at appropriate times.

This can be done effectively at the following points:

 

     an instrumental prelude

     a soft background to a spoken psalm

     at the preparation of the gifts, in place of singing

     during portions of the communion rite

     the recessional

 

In the dioceses of the United States, musical instruments other than the organ may be used in

liturgical services, provided that they are played in a manner that is suitable to public worship. This

decision deliberately refrains from singling out specific instruments. Their use depends on

circumstances, the nature of the community, etc.

 

 38. The PROPER PLACING of the organ and choir according to the arrangement and acoustics

of the church will facilitate celebration. Practically speaking, the choir must be near the director

and the organ (both console and sound). The choir ought to be able to perform without too much

distraction; the acoustics ought to give a lively presence of sound in the choir area and allow both

tone and word to reach everyone present with clarity. Visually it is desirable that the choir appear

to be part of the worshipping community, yet a part which serves in a unique way. Locating the

organ console too far away from the area of the assembly cause a time lag which tends to make

the singing drag unless the organist is trained to cope with it. A location near the front pews will

facilitate the singing of the assembly.

 

 THE PASTORAL JUDGEMENT

 

 39. The pastoral judgement governs the use and function of every element of celebration. Ideally

this judgement is made by the planning team or committee. It is the judgement that must be made

in this particular situation, in these concrete circumstances. Does music in the celebration enable

these people to express their faith, in this place, in this age, in this culture?

 

 40. The instruction of the Congregation for Divine Worship, issued September 5, 1971,

encourages episcopal conferences to consider not only liturgical music's suitability to the time and

circumstances of the celebration, "but alsothe needs of the faithful who will sing them. All means

must be used to promote singing by the people. New forms should be used, which are adapted to

the different mentalities and to modern tastes." The document adds that the music and the

instruments "should correspond to the sacred character of the celebration and the place of

worship."

 

 41. A musician may judge that a certain composition or style of composition is good music, but

that musical judgement really says nothing about wheather and how this music is to be used in this

celebration. The signs of the celebration must be accepted and received as meaningful for a

genuinely human faith experience for these specific worshippers. This pastoral judgement can be

aided by sociological studies of the people who make up the community: their age, culture and

education. These factors influence the effectiveness of the liturgical signs, including music. No set

of rubrics or regulations of itself will ever achieve a truly pastoral celebration of the sacramrntal

rites. Such regulations must always be applied with a pastoral concern for the given woshipping

community.

 

  

 

 

IV. GENERAL CONSIDERATION

ON LITURGICAL STRUCTURE

 

42. Those who are responsible for planning the music for eucharistic celebartions in accord with

the three judgements above must have a clear understanding of the structure of the liturgy. They

must be aware of what is the primary importance. They should know the nature of each of the

parts of the liturgy and the relationship of each part to the overall rhythm of the liturgical action.

 

 43. The Mass is made up of the liturgy of the word and the liturgy of the Eucharist. These two

parts are so closely connected as to from one act of worship. The table of the Lord is the table of

God's Word and Christ's Body, and from it the faithful are instructed and refreshed. In addition,

the Mass has introductory and concluding rites. The introductory and concluding rites are

secondary.

 

 The Introductory Rites

 

 44. The parts preceding the liturgy of the word, namely the entrance, greeting, penitential rite,

Gloria, and opening prayer, have the character of introduction and preparation. The purpose of

these rites is to help the assembled people become a worshipping community and to prepare them

for listening to to God's Word and celebrating the Eucharist. Of these parts the entrance song and

the opening prayer is primary. All else is secondary.

 

 If Mass begins with the sprinkling of the people with blessed water, the penitential rite is omitted;

this may be done at all Sunday Masses. Similarly, if the psalms of part of the Liturgy of the Hours

precede Mass, the introductory rite is abbreviated in accord with the General Instruction on the

office of prayer.

 

 THE LITURGY OF THE WORD

 

 45. Readings from scripture are the heart of the liturgy of the word. The homily, responsorial

psalm, profession of faith, and general intercessions develop and complete it. In the readings, God

speaks to his people and nourishes their spirit; Christ is present thruogh his word. The homily

explains the readings. The chants and the profession of faith comprise the people's acceptance of

God's Word. It is of primary importance that the people hear God's message of love, digest it with

the aid of psalms, silence and the homily, and respond, involving themselves in the great covenant

of love and redemption. All else is secondary.

 

 THE EUCHARISTIC PRAYER

 

 47. The eucharistic prayer, a prayer of thanksgiving and sanctification, is the center of the entire

celebration. By an introductory dialogue the priest invites the people to lift their hearts to God in

praise and thanks; he unites them with himself in the prayer he addresses in their name to the

Father through Jesus Christ. The meaning of the prayer is that the whole assembly joins Christ in

acknowledging the works of God and offering the sacrifice. As a statement of faith of the local

assembly it is affirmed and ratified by all present through acclamations of faith: the first acclamation

or Sanctus, the memorial acclamation, and the Great Amen.

 

 THE COMMUNION RITE

 

 48. The eating and drinking of the Body and Blood of the Lord in a paschal meal is the climax of

our eucharistic celebration. It is prepared for by several rites: the Lord's Prayer with embolism and

doxology, the rite of peace, breaking of bread (and commingling) during the "Lamb of God,"

private preparation of the priest and showing of the eucharistic bread. The eating and drinking is

accompanied by a song expressing the unity of the communicants and is followed by a time of

prayer after communion. Those elements are primary which show forth signs that the first fruit of

the Eucharist is the unity of the Body of Christ, Christians loving Christ through loving one another.

The principal texts to accompany or express the sacred action are the Lord's Prayer, the song

during the communion procession, and the prayer after communion.

 

 The Concluding Rite

 

 49. The concluding rite consists of the priest's greeting and blessing, which is sometimes

expanded by the prayer over the people or another solemn form, and the dismissal which sends

each member of the assembly to do good works, praising and blessing the Lord.

 

 A recessional song is optional. The greeting ("The Lord be with you . . ."), blessing, dismissal and

recessional song or instrumental music ideally form one continuous action which may culminate in

the priest's personal greetings and conversations at the church door.

 

 

 

V. APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF

CELEBRATION

TO MUSIC IN EUCHARISTIC WORSHIP

 

A. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

 

 50. Many and varied musical patterns are now possible within the liturgical structure. Musicians

and composers need to respond creatively and responsibly to the challenge of developing new

music for today's celebrations.

 

 51. While it is possible to make technical distinctions in the forms of Mass - all the way from the

Mass in which nothing is sung to the Mass in which every thing is sung - such distinctions are of

little significance in themselves; almost unlimited combinations of sung and recited parts may be

chosen. The important decision is whether or not this or that part may or should be sung in this

particular celebration and under these specific circumstances. The former distinction between

ordinary and proper parts of the Mass with regard to musical settings and distribution of roles is

no longer retained. For this reason the musical settings of the past are usually not helpful models

for composing truly liturgical contemporary pieces.

 

 52. Two patterns used to serve as foundation for the creating and planning of liturgy. One was

"High Mass" with its five movements, sung Ordinary and fourfold sung Proper. The other was the

four-hymn "Low Mass" format that grew out of the Instruction on Sacred Music of 1958. The

fuor-hymn pattern developed in the context of a Latin Mass which could accommodate song in

the vernacular only at certain points. It is now outdated and the Mass has more than a dozen parts

that may be sung as well as numerous options for the celebrant. Each of these parts must be

understood according to its proper nature and function.

 

B. SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS

 

1. THE ACCLAMATIONS

 

 53. The acclamations are shouts of joy which arise from the whole assembly as forceful and

meaningful assents to God's Word and Action. They are important because they make some of

the most significant moments of the Mass stand out (gospel, eucharistic prayer, Lord's Prayer). It

is of their nature that they be rhythmically strong, melodically appealing and affirmative. The

people should know the acclamations by heart in order to sing them spontaneously. The challenge

to the composer and people alike is one of variety without confusion.

 

 54. In the eucharistic celebration there are five acclamations which ought to be sung even at

Masses in which little else is sung:

 

     Alleluia (Gospel Acclamation)

     Holy Holy

     Memorial Acclamation

     Great Amen

     Doxology to Lord's Prayer

 

The Alleluia

 

 55. This acclamation of paschal joy is both a reflection upon the Word of God proclaimed in the

Liturgy and a preparation for the gospel. All stand to sing it. After the cantor or choir sings the

alleluia(s), the people customarily repeat them. Then a proper verse is sung by the cantor or choir,

and all repeat the alleluia(s). If not sung, the alleluia may be omitted. In its place, a moment of

silent reflection may be observed. During Lent a brief verse of acclamatory character replaces the

alleluia and is sung in the same way.

 

 "Holy Holy Holy Lord"

 

 56. This is the people's acclamation of praise concluding the preface of the eucharistic prayer.

We join the whole communion of saints in acclaiming the Lord. Settings which add harmony or

descants on solemn feasts and occasions are appropriate, but since this chant belongs to priest

and people, the choir parts must facilitate and make effective the people's parts.

 

 The Memorial Acclamations

 

 57. We support one another's faith in the paschal mystery, the central mystery of our belief. This

acclamation is properly a memorial of the Lord's suffering and glorification with an expression of

faith in his coming, but variety in text and music is desirable.

 

 The Great Amen

 

 58. The worshippers assent to the eucharistic prayer and make it their own in the Great Amen.

To be most effective, this Amen may be repeated or augmented. Choirs may harmonize and

expand upon the people's acclamation.

 

 Doxology to the Lord's Prayer

 

 59. These words of praise, "For the Kingdom, the power and the glory is yours, now and

forever," are fittingly sung by everyone especially when the Lord's Prayer is sung. Here too the

choir may enhance the acclamation with harmony.

 

 2. THE PROCESSIONAL SONGS

 

 60. The two processional chants - the entrance song and the communion song - are very

important for a sense of community. Proper antiphons are given to be used with appropriate psalm

verses. These may be replaced by the chants of the Simple Gradual, by other psalms and

antiphons or by other fitting songs.

 

 The entrance (Gathering) song

 

 61. The entrance/gathering song should create an atmosphere of celebration. It serves the

function of putting the assembly in the proper frame of mind for listening to the Word of God. It

helps people to become conscious of themselves as a worshipping community. The choice of texts

for the gathering song should not conflict with these purposes. In general, during the most

important seasons of the Church year (Easter, Lent, Christmas and Advent), it is preferable that

most songs used at the entrance be seasonal in nature.

 

 The Communion Song

 

62. The communion song should foster a sense of unity. It should be simple and not demand great

effort. It gives expression to the joy of unity in the body of Christ and the fulfillment of the mystery

being celebrated. Most benediction hymns, by reason of their concentration on adoration rather

than on communion, are not acceptabe. In general, during the most important season of the

Church year, Easter, Lent, Christmas and Advent, it is preferable that most of the songs used at

the communion be seasonal in nature. During the remainder of the Church year, however, topical

songs may be used during the communion procession, provided these texts do not conflict with the

paschal character of every Sunday.

 

 3. RESPONSORIAL PSALMS

 

 63.This unique and very important song is the response to the first lesson. The new lectionary lists

900 refrains in its determination to match the content of the psalms to the theme of the reading.

Further life is offered to the liturgy of the Word if, between the first two readings, a cantor sings

the psalm and everyone offers the response. Since most groups cannot learn a new response

every week, seasonal refrains are offered in the lectionary itself and in the Simple Gradual. Other

psalms and refrains may also be used, including psalms arranged in responsorial from, metrical and

similar versions of psalms, provided they are used in accordance with the principles of the Simple

Gradual and are selected in harmony with the liturgical season, feast or occasion. The option of

choosing texts which are not from the psalter is not extended to the chants between these

readings. To facilitate reflection, there may be a brief period of silence between the first reading

and the responsorial psalm.

 

 4. ORDINARY CHANTS

 

 64. The fourth category of liturgical music is that of the ordinary chants which now may be treated

as individual choices. One or more may be sung, the others spoken. The pattern may vary

according to pastoral judgement.

 

 Lord Have Mercy

 

 65. This short litany was traditionally a prayer of praise to the risen Christ. He has been raised

and made "Lord" and we beg him to show his loving kindness. The sixfold Kyrie of the new Order

of Mass may be sung in other ways, for example, as a ninefold chant. It may also be incorporated

in the penitential rite, with invocations addressed to Christ. When sung, the setting should be brief

and simple so as not to give undue importance to the introductory rites. "Glory to God"

 

 66. This ancient hymn of prise is now given in a new poetic and singable translation. It may be

introduced by celebrant, cantor or choir. The resticted use of the Gloria, i.e. only on Sundays

outside Advent and Lent and on solemnities and feasts, emphasizes its special and solemn

character. The new text offers many opportunities for alternation of choir and people in poetic

parallelisms. The Glory to God also provides an opportunity for the choir to sing alone on festive

occasions.

 

 Lord's Prayer

 

 67. This prayer begins our immediate preparation for sharing in the Paschal Banquet. The

traditional text is retained and may be set to music by composers with the same freedom as in

other parts or the Ordinary. All settings must provide for the participation of the priest and

everyone present.

 

 Lamb of God

 

 68. The Agnus Dei is a litany-song to accompany the breaking of the bread in preparation for

communion. The invocation and response may be repeated as the action demands. The final

response is always "grant us peace." Unlike the "Holy Holy Holy Lord" and the Lord's Prayer, the

Lamb of God is not necessarily a song of the whole assembly. Hence it may be sung by the choir,

though the people should generally make the response.

 

 Profession of Faith

 

 69. This is a communal profession of faith in which "...the people who have heard the Word of

God in the lesson and in the homily may assent and respond to it, and may renew in themselves

the rule of faith as they begin to celebrate the Eucharist." (General Instruction, 43) It is usually

preferable that the Creed be spoken in declamatory fashion rather than sung. If it is sung, it might

more effectively take the form of a simple musical declamation rather than that of an extensive and

involved musical structure.

 

 5. SUPPLEMENTARY SONGS

 

 70. This category includes songs for which there are no specified texts nor any requirement that

there should be a spoken or sung text. Here the choir may play a fuller role for there is no question

of usurping the people's parts. This category includes the following:

 

 During the Preparation of the Gifts

 

 71. Music may accopany the procession and preparation of the gifts. It is not always necessary

or desirable. Organ or instrumental music is also fitting at this time. When song is used, note that

the song need not speak of bread and wine or of offering. The proper function of this song is to

accompany and celebrate the communal aspects of the procession. The text, therefore can be any

appropriate song of praise or of rejoicing in keeping with the season. The antiphons of the Romen

Gradual, not included in the new Roman Missal, may be used with psalm vocals. Instrumental

interludes can effectively accompany the procession and preparation of the gifts and thus keep this

part of the Mass in proper perspective relative to the eucharistic prayer that follows.

 

The Psalm or Song after Communion

 

 72. The singing of a psalm or hymn of praise after the distribution of communion is optional. If the

organ is played or the choir sings during the distribution of communion, a song by the whole

assembly may well provide a fitting expression of oneness in the Eucharistic Lord. Since no

particular text is specified, there is ample room for creativity.

 

 The Recessional Song

 

 73. The recessional song has never been an official part of the rite; hence musicians are free to

plan music which provides an appropriate closing to the liturgy. A song is one possible choice.

However, if the people have sung a song after communion, it may be advisable to use only an

instrumental or choir recessional.

 

 Litanies

 

 74. Litanies are often more effective when sung. The repetition of melody and rhythm draws the

people together in a strong and unified response. In addition to the "Lamb of God" already

mentioned, the general intercessions (prayer of the faithful) offer an opportunity for litanical singing,

as do the invocations of Christ in the penitential rite.

 

 PROGRESS AND NEW DIRECTIONS

 

 75. Many new patterns and combinations of song are emerging in eucharistic celebrations. The

most common pattern is the singing of an entrance song, alleluia, Holy Holy Holy Lord, memorial

acclamation, Great Amen, and a song at communion (or a song after communion). Other parts are

added in varying quantities, depending on season, degree of solemnity and musical resources.

Choirs often add one or more of the following: a song befor Mass, a song during the preparation

of the gifts, the "Glory to God" on special occasions, additional communion songs or a song after

communion or a recessional. They may also enhance the entrance song of the assembly with

descants, harmony, and antiphonal arrangements. Harmony is desirable when it gives breadth and

power to the unison voices of people without confusing them.

 

76. Flexibility reigns supreme. The musician with a sense of artistry and a deep knowledge of the

rhythm of the liturgical action will be able to combine the many options into an effective whole. For

the composer and performer alike there is an unprecedented challenge. They must enhance the

liturgy with new creations of variety and richness and with those compositions from the

time-honored treasury of liturgical music which can still serve today's celebrations. Like the wise

householder in Matthew's Gospel, the church musician must be one "who can produce from his

store both the new and the old."

 

 77. The Church in the United States today needs the services of many qualified musicians as song

leaders, organists, instrumentalists, cantors, choir directors, and composers. We have been

blessed with many generous musicians who have given years of service even with meger financial

compensation. In order that the art many grow and face the challenges of today and tomorrow,

every diocese and parish should establish policies for hiring and paying living wages to competent

musicians. Full-time musicans employed by the Church ought to be on the same salary scale as

teachers with similar qualifications and workloads.

 

 78. Likewise, in order that composers and publishers recive just compensation for their work,

those engaged in parish music programs and those responsible for budgets must often be

reminded that it is illegal and immoral to reproduce by any means either text or music or both of

copyrighted materials without written permission of the copyright owner. The fact that these

duplicated materials are not for sale but for private use does not alter the legal or moral situation of

the practice.

 

  

 

 

 

VI. MUSIC IN SACRAMENTAL CELEBRATIONS

 

 79. While music has traditionally been part of the celebration of weddings, funerals and

confirmation, the communal celebration of baptism, anointing and penance is only recently

restored. The renewed rituals, following the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, provide for and

encourage communal celebrations, which according to the capabilities of the people gathered,

should involve song.

 

 80. The rite of baptism is best begun by an entrance song; the liturgy of the word is enhanced by

a sung psalm and/or alleluia. Where the processions to and from the place of the liturgy of the

word take some time, they should be accompanied by music. Above all, the acclamations - the

affirmation of faith by the people, the acclamation immediately after the baptism, the acclamation

upon completion of the rite - should be sung by the full assembly.

 

 81. Whenever rites like the anointing of the sick or the sacrament of penance are celebrated

communally, music is important. The general structure is intrductory rite, liturgy of the word,

sacrament and dismissal. The introductory rite and liturgy of the word follow the pattern of the

Mass. At the time of the sacrament an acclamation or song by all the people is desirable.

 

 82. Confirmation and marriage are most often celebrated within a Mass. The norms given above

pertain. Great care should be taken, especially at marriages, that all the people are involved at the

important moments of the celebration, that the same general principles of planning worship and

judging music are employed as at other liturgies, and above all, that the liturgy is a prayer for all

present, not a theatrical production.

 

 83. Music becomes particularly important in the new burial rites. Without it the themes of hope

and resurrection are very difficult to express. The entrance song, the acclamations, and the song of

farewell or commendation are of primary importance for the whole assembly. The choral and

instrumental music should fit the paschal mystery theme.

 

  

 

 

 

VII. CONCLUSION

 

 84. We find today a vital interest in the Mass as prayer and here lies the principle of synthesis.

When everyone with one accord strives to make the Mass a prayer, a sharing and celebration of

Faith, then there will be unity - many styles of music, a broad choice of instruments, a wide variety

of forms of celebration, but a single purpose: that people of faith may proclaim and share that faith

in prayer and that Christ may grow among us.

 

 

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